DrugsMechanism Of ActionAdverse EffectsContraindicationsUses
Directly acting vasodilatorsVenousNitrates (GTN and Nitroglycerin)Releases NO through cyclic GMPTachycardia, headache, flushing and orthostatic hypotensionAs they decrease preload do not use in inferior MI or right ventricular infarctionAcute and chronic angina
ArterialCCB (DHP like Amlodipine and non-DHP like Verapamil)Blocks calcium channels in the cardiac and smooth muscleGingival hyperplasia and peripheral edema, AV block, bradycardia and constipationHypotension and hypersensitivityHTN, arrythmia, angina
Minoxidil, DiazoxideATP sensitive potassium channel openersHypertrichosis, Fluid retentionAlopecia
PrazosinAlpha BlockerFirst dose hypotensionCHF3rd line drug in HTN
HydralazineDirectly relaxes arteriolar smooth muscles through cyclic AMPTachycardia, fluid retention and SLECAD, angina, RHD as it causes compensatory tacchycardiaPIH
MixedACE inhibitorsPrevent conversion of Angiotensin I to IIDry cough hyperkalemia and hypotensionPregnancy and hereditary angioedemaHeart failure, HTN, MI, CCF, Scleroderma crisis
ARBPrevents Angiotensin II from binding to its receptor (cardio-reno protective)Hyperkalemia and hypotensionPregnancy
Sodium NitroprussideBoth venous and arteriolar dilator releasing NOCyanide toxicityHypertensive emergencies
Beta 2 receptor agonistSalbutamol TerbutalineBeta 2 mediated vasodilatationTremors hypokalemia
Centrally acting Alpha 2 receptor agonistClonidine, MethyldopaActs on presynaptic alpha 2 receptor and decreases sympathetic outflowRebound hypertension on withdrawalClonidine - Last Drug Of Choice In HTN
Methyldopa - First drug of choice in PIH but nowadays we are into “Nifedipine Retard or Labetelol”
Endothelin receptor antagonistsBosentan, AmbrisentanETA and ETB receptor blockerAnaemia, teratogenecityPulmonary arterial hypertension
Beta Blockers with Nitric Oxide vasodilatationBisoprolol, NebivololBeta 1 block reduces heart rate and cardiac work load and NO causes vasodilatationBradycardiaHeart BlockYoung hypertensives